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Thursday, December 27

  1. 10:56 am

Friday, April 9

  1. page Malacca edited ... x-----Malacca_had_become_one_of_the_most Malacca’s Growing Economy Malacca had become one of …
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    x-----Malacca_had_become_one_of_the_most Malacca’s Growing Economy
    Malacca had become one of the most dominant trading cities in the world during its existence and it played a crucial role in the stability of interaction between different cities and civilizations surrounding itself. It had an enormous impact on other civilizations and cities since it allowed its cultural, religious, and economic influence to spread through land and sea routes that it was connected to. Malacca was positioned on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula in between the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea and it was near a water channel where rivers formed a harbor used as a port in trade. Its position allowed the city to trade with places such as China, Burma, the Philippines, India, Sumatra, northern Java, the Spice Islands, and Mindanao. Merchants from all over the world had traveled to Malacca to gain products in trade. The monsoons, which were winds, affected when people could travel to Southeast Asia so many merchants would stay in Southeast Asia for longer periods of time before they could travel back to their home again. Many merchants traveled to Malacca since its continuous uprising success in its large number of ports allowed trade to easily be practiced in Southeast Asia between other cultures.
    x-----One_of_the_most_common_beliefs_bei OneOne of the
    ...
    in the world.x-----Malacca_was_involved_with_long_disworld.
    Malacca was involved with long distance trade since it was used as a trading port for many goods being exchanged as both imports and exports to and from the city. It played a huge role along both the silk routes, spice routes, and many water routes taken by ships across the Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and South China Sea. Trade in Malacca was controlled by Sultans who provided the goods and sold them, made ships for sea routes, and controlled actions of goods being traded taken place at the ports. The Sultans therefore often contacted emperors and rulers from other civilizations which led to the development of more advanced connections to trade throughout the world. Most of the goods traded on land routes during this time included any goods that were of high value and weight while heavier materials traveled on sea routes.
    Some of the most popularly traded goods were spices, pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon, mace, and cloves which were transported through Malacca from Southern India to China. China exported porcelains, silk, and textiles as their main products to Arab and Indian traders in Southeast Asia for trade. Burma, located in Southeast Asia, also often exported many items to Malacca including precious stones, silver, and foods. Malacca's main exports to Burma from other cities consisted of pottery and various spices. Siamese merchants visiting Malacca exported goods such as rice, dried fish, wine, and slaves. Merchants from the Philippines brought food, wood, and gold to Malacca. Many items exported from Malacca came from other places which among these goods were steel, stones, silk, coral, and architectural materials.
    x-----When_it_came_to_spreading_culture, WhenWhen it came
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    benefited their economy.x-----Malacca_was_made_up_of_many_differeconomy.
    Malacca’s Social Aspects
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    around Asia.
    x-----Among_the_people_located_in_Malacc Among the people located in Malacca were the Malays, Chinese, Indians, Baba-Nyonya, Portuguese and Chitty. Each group of people had their own religious beliefs, lifestyles, and languages that ended up mixing together in Malacca. The Malays were the overall ethnic group that inhabited the Malay Peninsula. This ethnic group was a distinct concept of the Malay race which included many other cultures, such as from Indonesia and the Philippines. Many new languages were introduced into Malacca, from so many people coming to the city for trade, religious, political, or travel purposes. The Chinese moved from China, down to the Peninsula and into Malacca. They spoke Chinese and studied Buddhism, which was a philosophy that focused on an individual seeking enlightenment through the Eightfold Path to achieve Nirvana and be released from reincarnation. People from India also traveled on sea routes to live in Malacca, and spread their culture when they got there. They originally studied Hinduism but most converted to Islam after Muslim invasions. Baba-Nyonya was a group of people that was a mixture of Chinese descendants and Malaysian. The Baba-Nyonya’s adopted the Malayan dress, language and religion, but retained some Chinese traditions. The Portuguese entered Malacca from Portugal and helped spread the increasingly practiced faith of Islam. They had conquered Malacca and ruled the city. The final group of people that were found in Malacca who shared their cultures throughout the city were the Chitty’s, who were Tamil people, also known as Indian Peranakans. They spoke the Malayan language, but added some Tamil words into their dialect of the religion. The Chitty people studied the Hindu religion and were among the many influences on Malacca's combination of cultures.
    x-----Malacca_had_a_diverse_amount_of_re MalaccaMalacca had a
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    the city.
    x-----The_food_in_Malacca_was_brought_fr The

    The
    food in
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    Celup from Malay.x-----Malacca's_first_ruler_was_ParameswMalay.
    Malacca's first ruler was Parameswara who helped to develop its class systems. There was a specific class system for the authorities and the court officials. This class acted as the agents of the ruler for maintaining the old customs in Malacca. The classes start at the top, the Bendahara. The Bendahara was known as the younger brother of the ruler. When the ruler was away, the Bendahara would fill his place until he returned. The next one was the Perdana Menteri. There was not a specific way to classify the Perdana Menteri but that he sat facing the Bendahara in the “audience hall”. Then, the Penghulu Bendahari was next in the classes. This official was known ‘as seated below the Bendahara’, or as inferior to the Bendahara. Next, the Hulubalang Besar, also known as ‘captain-in-chief’ sat next to the Penghulu Bendahari and controls the captains and military commanders. Another title for him would be ‘Tun Tempurung Gemerentak’. Finally, the last group of officials is the Other Lesser Ministeres which contains body gaurds, lords, noblemen, knights, palace attendants, courtiers, heralds, and captains. Malacca eventually changed these classes but kept some of them remained unchanged. The Bendahara was changed to be the father-in-law of the king instead of the younger brother. The Perdana Menteri was yet another member of the royal family. Lastly was the Penghulu Bendahari, who was the son-in-law of the Bendahara. The workings of these officials have just been changed to more royal members of the family and older relatives.
    Malacca’s Expansion through Political Advancement
    x-----Malacca_was_greatly_influenced_by_ MalaccaMalacca was greatly
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    of Malacca.
    x-----Shortly_after_it_was_founded,_Mala Shortly

    Shortly
    after it
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    strong empire.
    x-----These_dangers_lead_Malacca_to_begi These

    These
    dangers lead
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    and China.
    x-----This_treaty_kept_Malacca_safe_unti This

    This
    treaty kept
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    more chaotic.
    x-----The_Portuguese's_failure_to_contro The

    The
    Portuguese's failure
    Malacca’s Overall Success as A City of Trade
    Malacca had an advantage to being successful in trade since its origin because its location was so beneficial to contact other cities nearby. The city expanded the variety of goods that were traded along the land and sea routes during this time, leading many regions to become rich and stable with resources. Religions also spread through sharing philosophical influence to gain converts to the developing missionary religions. Cultural and political ideas were spread by rulers from city to city that helped maintain good connections and allies to other civilizations forming. Malacca had a diverse amount of people living in it, since it was so successful and attracted people to live in a complex city. Malacca had become so powerful and such an influential city only because the trade routes that connected it to other cities led it to be able to achieve the economic, social, and political stability it did.
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    3:36 am

Thursday, April 8

  1. page Samarkand edited ... Another time Samarkand was under a centralized government, or rule under one key leader, was w…
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    Another time Samarkand was under a centralized government, or rule under one key leader, was when it was under the control of the Sassanid Empire. Sassanid rulers considered themselves the “King of Kings” and were the superior head of society. Both the Mongol Empire and the Sassanid Empire's government were controlled mainly by one man, but they also contained a similarity in the way the government interacted with the military. Rulers of Samarkand were often focused on expanding their lands and using military control to keep order in their civilizations. Timur’s military was a major threat to neighboring kingdoms, as was the Sassanid army.
    Samarkand was popular among the rulers of empires in this time period. Numerous political leaders fought to have control over the lands of Samarkand. It was desired because of its distinctive location among the trade routes. Samarkand wasn’t only wanted for trade. Rulers were attracted to Samarkand for its social connections too. Timur used this capital city to house a religion. He made it one of the centers of the Islamic world. Political men knew how many people traveled through Samarkand for economical and social reasons, and pegged it to be on their wanted list. Having power over such an influential place like Samarkand could help a society flourish greatly.
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    of life.
    References
    Esposito, J. (2004). Tamerlane. SIRS Researcher. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from http://sks.sirs.es.vrc.scoolaid.net/cgi-bin/hst-article-display?id=SNY5270-0-77&artno=0000280774&type=ART&shfilter=U&key=samarkand*title=Tamerlane&res=Y&ren=N&gov=N&lnk=N&ic=N#citation
    Jackson, W.A.D. (2010). Samarqand. Encyclopedia Americana. Retrieved April2, 2010, from Grolier Online http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0342540-00
    Samarkand. (2010). In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras.Retrieved April 4, 2010, from http://ancienthistory.abc-clio.com
    Soldatova, E. (2004). Samarkand Ceramics. San'at. retrieved from http://sanat.orexca.com
    Timur. (2010. In World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. Retrieved March 30, 2010, from http://www.ancienthistory.abc-clio.com

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    8:21 pm
  2. page Samarkand edited ... Mr. Ferrante Pre A.P. World History Abstract Samarkand belonged to various empires and dyn…
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    Mr. Ferrante
    Pre A.P. World History
    Abstract
    Samarkand belonged to various empires and dynasties between the years 600 to 1450 C.E. Originally founded by the Persians, Samarkand was eventually conquered by the Mongols, Arabs, Turks, and the Sassanid Empire. It was a city many people fought for because it had many benefits. Not only did it flourish economically and socially being in the heart of the Silk Routes, but it also developed some strong political aspects. Samarkand's convenient location made it desirable to empires and a popular place for craftsmen and merchants to visit. Artisans and scholars came to Samarkand because of its diverse and vast culture. Although Samarkand changed rulers numerous time; it remained a major trading city because of its unique location, a place of art and cultural interaction, and had a consistently stable and centralized government.

    Introduction
    Throughout the years 600-1450 C.E., many Silk Route cities were established and became major interaction points in social, economical, and political ways. Samarkand was one of the cities that flourished during this time period. It was under the control of many empires, including the Mongols, Arabs, Turks, and the Sassanid Empire. Samarkand was a city many people eagerly wanted and fought for because of all its advantage points. It had a convenient location centered in the middle of trade in the Silk Routes, which made it desirable to many empires. Artisans and scholars also came to Samarkand because of its diverse and extensive culture. Although Samarkand changed rulers numerous times; it remained a major trading city because of its unique location, a place of art and cultural interaction, and had a consistently stable and centralized government.
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    8:13 pm
  3. page Malacca - Amorosano, Hunter, Sengstaken edited Malacca; Economic, Social, and Political Achievements Talia Amorosano, Natalie Hunter, Casey Se…
    Malacca; Economic, Social, and Political Achievements
    Talia Amorosano, Natalie Hunter, Casey Sengstaken
    Mr. Ferrante
    AP World History, period 6
    ...
    9, 2010
    Abstract:
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    government was a monarchy,amonarchy, which interacted
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    country and thete king of
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    who spread theirthier culture. The
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    political structure.
    Malacca was located in the region of Southeast Asia. It was advantageously situated on the Strait of Malacca which effected its social stratification, economic welfare, and political organization. Malacca was able to spread religion and thrive economically because of its convenient location between China and India. Its role in the Indian Ocean trade was helpful and its exports of various spices contributed to its overall wealth. In addition, its geographical position helped it to run its government wisely. This allowed Malacca to be a successful city under the Portuguese's rule until it was handed over to the Dutch. Because of many aspects, including Malacca's ruler, location, trade policies, and tributes, Malacca was able to prosper politically, socially, and economically.
    After Malacca was invaded by the Portuguese in 1511, its economy became incredibly prosperous. The Portuguese desired for Malacca to become very much involved in trade. As a result, it became one of the principal cities of trade in Southeast Asia. Malacca was a part of the Spice Island trade. It was located in the Chinese and Indian trade routes on the eastern side of the Indian Ocean.
    Another one of the reasons why Malacca was so involved with trade is because it was in the Strait of Malacca. This was where the port of Malacca was located, which was a very ideal location for the Malaccan economy. The port of Malacca was where most of the exports were sent out and the imports were received. It was beneficial because it was a simple and local way to import and export various goods. The Strait of Malacca’s location was perfect for trading with a vast variety of the regions in Asia such as South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia. It was enabled Malacca not only to trade be able with cities within Southeast Asia such as the Philippines and Cambodia. Malaccans were also able to trade with people from the Indian trade route such as Quilon, Ceylon, and Calicut, but also with cities from the Chinese trade route such as Srivijava, Hangchow, Zaitun, and Canton. Malacca was so successful with trade that they had their navy protecting their trade ships and cargo. Some items that were traded to and from Malacca were coral, stone, silk textiles, precious stones, steel, and building materials. All of these products helped to stimulate Malacca's economy, which was primarily dependant on their trading relationships with other regions.
    Because of its great success and involvement in trade, Malacca’s economy kept increasing at a high rate and kept improving until 1641. This is when Portuguese Malacca surrendered its rule to the Dutch. The decline of Malacca's role in trade and economy seemed to correspond with the Dutch taking over the area. For the most part the Portuguese and the Strait of Malacca helped this Southeast Asian city prosper economically.
    Malacca, a prosperous city of Southeast Asia, was exposed to many different cultural influences due to its vulnerable location on the tip of a strait in Malaysia. However beneficial for trade this location may have been, it was also a spot where the city could easily be taken over by many different kinds of peoples. As a result of the taking over and re-taking over of Malacca, it became a culturally diverse and unique city with mixed art styles and traditions that would influence others for years to come.
    Since Malacca was in contact with the Chinese throughout most of its history, Chinese styles had vast influence on Malaccan art and general life in the city. The Chinese also spread Buddhism throughout Malacca and the religion was widely embraced for a time. In terms of art, some paintings and artifacts can still be found today. Much of the Chinese influenced art had religious significance and many paintings depict images of the Buddha.

    China was
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    into the city,city; Hinduism took
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    Muslim behavior. They could pick up Islamic customs and thereby spread their new knowledge to other people. Communication was key for the success of the mass conversion to Islam to succeed. The building
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    Malay Peninsula.
    Aside from art and trade, Malacca did in fact have more factors contributing to its overall success as a region. It's government forms and styles of ruling helped to keep it strong and thriving. Malacca’s

    Malacca’s
    location on
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    silk routes was not only beneficial for trade and foreign cultural influence, but it affected Malacca'sits influence on the surrounding civilizations as well. Malacca's governments had their political strengths and most other areas in the general vicinity were in contact with itin some way.civilizations. The Chinese
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    and India influencedinfluences government policies.
    The city of Malacca had a very important location on the silk route. It was located in Southeast Asia, right between India and China. This caused the city to have an interesting government due to influences from both Indian and Chinese politics. The city of Malacca was ruled independently by a king but the king paid tribute to China in order to remain independent. Although they remained independent, they commonly enforced Chinese policy due to the heavy influence from China in the north. Malaccan politics were heavily influenced by the religions popular during the time because the religions they had were all filtered through India so the religions had been changed and developed to meet India's political and economic needs. These changes in turn affected the way the government was run and the way the people of Malacca acted. Due to Malacca’s strategic location on the silk routes, it was regularly switched between rulers. One very important switch was when a young man from the Philippines allied himself with the Chinese and overthrew the Malaccan government. This was an important turnover because trade coming into Malacca was boosted under the new government policy. This in turn boosted the economy which was a very important part of everyday life in the city of Malacca.
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    multiple times. Despite the hardships that this city faced, it managed to become one of the most successful cities of Southeast Asia. Malacca was
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    trade by the their rulers,
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    and helped to make Malacca
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    ruled by.
    Work Cited
    Bentley, J. H., & Ziegler, H. F. (n.d.). Chapter 15. In Tradition Encounters (pp. 436-437). Boston:
    McGraw Hill.
    Docstoc. (n.d.). The History of Malacca and its Glorious Starts. Retrieved from Docstoc website:
    http://www.docstoc.com/docs/2200164/THE-HISTORY-OF-MALACCA-Malacca-and-its-glorious-starts
    Global Oneness. (n.d.). A Wisdom Archive on Economic importance. In Economic Importance. Retrieved from
    http://www.experiencefestival.com/economic_importance
    NationMaster. (n.d.). Mansur Shah of Malacca. In Encyclopedia: Mansur Shah of Malacca. Retrieved
    from http://www.statemaster.com/encyclopedia/Mansur-Shah-of-Malacca
    Wikipedia. (n.d.). Malacca. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malacca#History

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    8:10 pm
  4. page Samarkand edited The Ancient Study of Social, Political, and Economic Aspects in the City of Samarkand Faryn …

    The AncientStudy of Social, Political, and Economic Aspects in the City of Samarkand
    Faryn Solomon, Mackenzie Rinefierd,
    and itsAustin Gipson
    Smithtown High School West
    Mr. Ferrante
    Pre A.P. World
    History
    Introduction
    Throughout the years 600-1450 C.E., many Silk Route cities were established and became major interaction points in social, economical, and political ways. Samarkand was one of the cities that flourished during this time period. It was under the control of many empires, including the Mongols, Arabs, Turks, and the Sassanid Empire. Samarkand was a city many people eagerly wanted and fought for because of all its advantage points. It had a convenient location centered in the middle of trade in the Silk Routes, which made it desirable to many empires. Artisans and scholars also came to Samarkand because of its diverse and extensive culture. Although Samarkand changed rulers numerous times; it remained a major trading city because of its unique location, a place of art and cultural interaction, and had a consistently stable and centralized government.
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    8:06 pm
  5. page Damascus Paper - Manepalli, Restifo, Cosme edited Intro: Damascus, located in modern day Syria, has been referred to as " the capital of Arab…
    Intro:
    Damascus, located in modern day Syria, has been referred to as " the capital of Arab culture and pride". It has been a part of numerous empires because of its rich economic history. Because of it being under so many different empires, it was exposed to and thrived with multiple religions and cultures. During the post- classical era, Damascus became very influential because of its proximity to the silk routes. The Umayyad Dynasty, the new power in the Islamic world, decided to make Damascus its capital because of its economic success. Becoming the capital of a powerful empire gave Damascus a new found sense of entitlement which it was able to use to control the Silk Routes. Damascus was a thriving commercial force because of its location, a political power by virtue of becoming the capital of the Umayyad dynasty, and was home to numerous cultures as a result.
    Economic:
    Damascus had multiple advantages to help it become an economic powerhouse. The first one was the natural location advantage they enjoyed over other countries because it was in the vicinity of the silk routes. The economy has been influential especially in the post classical era; they wielded a lot of power over the economy of multiple countries and most of the trading had to go through Damascus for the goods to make it to the other side. In the middle ages around the time of 1100-1600 CE, Damascus was known for its steel. Damascus steel became a metaphor in the steel industry because it was known for its quality and strength; it was exclusively used to make swords and other steel based weaponry. The steel’s high quality (historians today are yet to figure out the source of its strength) made it a highly valued export item that was sought after by many countries. Damascus would import steel ingots from India and use this to make the swords then export the swords out to China, other south Asian countries, and also civilizations in Europe such as the Byzantine and the Persian Empires which helped further ignite its trade. A physical piece of architecture that helped fuel the Damascus economy was the Umayyad Mosque. The Mosque is one of the largest and oldest in the world and it attracted many visitors. It holds high importance to not only Muslims but also to Christians, both brought new cultures and helped the economy in a small way while they were buying products while touring Damascus. The Umayyad dynasty was also credited with the creation of the world’s first banking system. The banking was centered around its capital and its economic center, Damascus. They created the first structures that were similar to banks. In the middle of the Mosque there were money centers that would serve as a model for the Abbasid Empire to create the first official banking system. The key part to the success of Damascus was the fact that there was a unified currency that was used throughout the Umayyad Empire. The centralized currency made trade tremendously easier because there was no need to figure out how to equate the values to make sure that both sides of the deal were getting equal values. This just increased the attraction for foreign countries to want to trade with Damascus. They made the arduous process of long distance trade easier and quicker. Damascus mainly traded with countries such as India and northern Africa which were the more or less the boundaries of the spread of Islam. In the agricultural trade department, Damascus started growing rice that was imported from India, and they used timber imported from Africa to compensate for the lake of timber in their area and to use for their many architectural projects such as the Great Mosque.
    Political:
    The political history of Damascus during the time of Islam was confusing and poorly controlled. It changed hands many times and had no reliable system of law. The city was situated in a beneficial location on the political map; so trade supported the economic growth of Damascus. When trade and the economy was blossoming, politics were made much easier because there was less turmoil. But since this city was located between many major empires such as the Umayyad and the Egyptians it was never governed independently, instead sub-rulers from Cairo or Baghdad would attend and watch over the city (It was always part of a larger empire). Once the Arabs conquered it in 635, it became the capital and the most important city under Muslim control. Besides being the center of trade, Damascus was extremely important to the Umayyad Military. Since it was on the outer part of the plains in Syria, the military was in prime location to gather food and be constantly supported by the rest of the empire. In 750 with the Abbasid’s gaining control, the capital city was moved to Baghdad. With all the attention removed from the city the people of Damascus became somewhat harsh and incapable of being governed. The Umayyad troops along the border of Syria became weak and the new soldiers from the Abbasid began to seize control. In the start of the 10th century, militias in Damascus became large and started to strike fear into the governors from Syria. There were constant changes in position but the successors of the old governors were not strong and they lacked strength and control over the people. A man named "Sultan" Malikshah was the leader of Baghdad. He was the center of the empire but in 1092 he died and suddenly the City of Baghdad and the empire fell into smaller parts. This made Damascus a separate city/power from the empire that was left. Now Damascus became a small city that was governed only by people within the region. Nur al-Din was the leader during the time period around 1150-1174. Under his reign, there were fewer militia attacks and he was very popular in parts of the Muslim world. After the Reign of Nur al-Din, Saladin became the leader and he attempted to conquer new land. Saladin gained new territories during his conquests and formed the Ayyubid confederation. Under this new rule, Damascus became a vital piece because of its ability to resist the invasions from Egypt. Since so many rulers wanted control over the city, it was forced to surrender multiple times to armies including the Ayyubids. The Ayyubids held power over the city for many years until the Mongols (Germanic invaders) defeated them in1260. Now that the city was in no command, the Mamluk sultanate occupied it. It became a capital of a province in Syria. It was not used as much and was mainly there for the protection of Egypt and a place for the Mamluk to prepare for battles against Mongols and rival Muslim groups. As a smaller city under the Sultanate, it inherited wealth and gifts from the Mamluk hierarchy. The Mamluks would place chiefs to carry out policies within their assigned region.
    Social:
    Since Damascus is one of the oldest cities, the social part of its outlook changes from time to time. Before Damascus formed its social structure as Islamic, the Byzantine Empire ruled it under the Christen Orthodox culture. The Byzantine rulers tried to rule as many silk route cities as they could while they reigned. They eventually used Damascus as one of the key silk routes cities in their empire. For most of the time, Damascus was predominantly an Islamic culture during the Umayyad, Abbasid and Ottoman Empires. But, the Umayyad Empire used the Roman streets street styles and used the walls around the city for protection against nomadic invaders from the Northern steppes. The Umayyads also added the caliph tombs of some Muslim rulers located adjacent to an old temple ground in the Northwestern part of the city, which held the Church dedicated to St. John the Baptist during the Byzantine Empire. But before the Church was build, it was a massive temple built to Jupiter by the Romans. The temple ground would then be turned into the Church dedicated to St. John the Baptist and then Umayyad mosque- palace. The Umayyad Mosque- palace lasts in the same spot until present day and would be a centerpiece for Damascus for most of the post classical era. The massive palace would have quarters for the local rulers of the Umayyad Dynasty and for any other important government official visiting the city. The city would then use the mosque as the center of the city for the Muslims even though it was located in the Northwestern part of the city. The merchants would live surrounding the Masque-palace, thus connecting trade and culture together. The poor classes lived in the southwestern quarter of the city and were taken to serve the nobles in the Umayyad Mosque-palace. The connection to the silk routes brought and sent many different cultures to and from Damascus. This especially occurred when Muhammad started preaching about Allah and his message. Many of the Muslim people started to become merchants to try and use Muhammad’s life as an example, so they traveled to Damascus to interact on the silk route and sent the Islamic faith with them. The city became overwhelmed with people and grew a population of more than sixty-six thousand people when the Islamic faith rose to its high point. Damascus also became the center of Muslim learning during the twelfth century with the arrival of Nur al-Din. He founded many of the madrasahs in Damascus and influenced local scholars too. A local Hanafite school emerged as a result of the Turkish courts and armies during the twelfth centuries would not last long without getting influenced by the Muslim way of life.
    Conclusion:
    Damascus, located in Syria, is one of the oldest cities and was important to the growth of many empires. It was located in a prime location for trade along the silk routes, which lured in major empires such as the Umayyad and Abbasid. Although it was politically unstable, it always thrived economically. Over the centuries, many empires gained and lost control of city. At times it was part of major empires but it was independent at others. This city was impacted many times by the changes in the islamic world. This small city had a tremendous impact on neighboring cities and empires.
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    8:01 pm
  6. page Damascus edited ... Social: The year 635 C.E. was a turning point in the history of Damascus. In March 635, Musli…
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    Social:
    The year 635 C.E. was a turning point in the history of Damascus. In March 635, Muslim armies under Khaled Ibn al-Walid entered Damascus and annexed Syria to the quickly expanding Muslim empire. The Muslims had travelled from the Arabian Peninsula northwards, inspired by their new religion, facing little resistance on their way. But Damascus proved to be more than an obstacle to the invaders; the city held against attacks for six months before a committee of Damascene notables surrendered the city to the Muslim leaders. Islam brought to Damascus a new set of cultural, economic and social rules. The way of life changed in accordance with the teachings of the Quran. There was mass conversion to Islam, but Jews and Christians, who became minorities, were treated with tolerance by the Muslims. Christians and Muslims prayed side by side in the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, before Muslim rulers decided to build the Great Mosque on the same site.
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    to grow. Damascus was frequently being attacked as well but the Syrian leaders could not do much to retaliate due to huge number of men in the neighboring, intruding armies.
    The Ghassanids were an Arabian tribe that converted to christianity. They assisted the Byzantine governors of Damascus and defended the area against Sassanid Persians. However, in 612 C.E., the Persian king Chosraes II invaded Damascus, and the Persians ruled the city until 627, when Byzantine rule was restored. Byzantine Damascus remained much the same as it had during the Roman period, except for the mass construction of churches and the transformation of the Temple of Jupiter into the cathedral dedicated to St. John the Baptist in the fourth century. In addition to this cathedral, 16 churches were built in and around Damascus. The Church of al- Mosallaba was built near the Eastern Gate at the site where the Chapel of Ananias now stands. The site has been chosen because its thought to be the place where St. Paul was cured of his blindness after his vision on the road to Damascus. Two churches were also built in this area: The Church of al-Maqsala'at and the Church of Mariam (Mary), which was replaced by the Maryamiyyah Church which still stands today.
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    8:01 pm
  7. page Damascus edited ... Social: The year 635 C.E. was a turning point in the history of Damascus. In March 635, Musli…
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    Social:
    The year 635 C.E. was a turning point in the history of Damascus. In March 635, Muslim armies under Khaled Ibn al-Walid entered Damascus and annexed Syria to the quickly expanding Muslim empire. The Muslims had travelled from the Arabian Peninsula northwards, inspired by their new religion, facing little resistance on their way. But Damascus proved to be more than an obstacle to the invaders; the city held against attacks for six months before a committee of Damascene notables surrendered the city to the Muslim leaders. Islam brought to Damascus a new set of cultural, economic and social rules. The way of life changed in accordance with the teachings of the Quran. There was mass conversion to Islam, but Jews and Christians, who became minorities, were treated with tolerance by the Muslims. Christians and Muslims prayed side by side in the Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, before Muslim rulers decided to build the Great Mosque on the same site.
    Political: Damascus was never as politically advanced as it was econimically. In fact, it would be fair to say that the Damascene politics were below average. There were a couple of reasons for this, they were:the often change of power over the city,the lack of a consistant law system, and its location. There were larger, more sophisticated empires around Syria such as the Abbasid, Umayyad, Egyptian and others that were always looking to benefit from Damascus' economic wealth so their leaders would often claim ownership of the city. This made it tough for the political aspect of the city to grow.
    The Ghassanids were an Arabian tribe that converted to christianity. They assisted the Byzantine governors of Damascus and defended the area against Sassanid Persians. However, in 612 C.E., the Persian king Chosraes II invaded Damascus, and the Persians ruled the city until 627, when Byzantine rule was restored. Byzantine Damascus remained much the same as it had during the Roman period, except for the mass construction of churches and the transformation of the Temple of Jupiter into the cathedral dedicated to St. John the Baptist in the fourth century. In addition to this cathedral, 16 churches were built in and around Damascus. The Church of al- Mosallaba was built near the Eastern Gate at the site where the Chapel of Ananias now stands. The site has been chosen because its thought to be the place where St. Paul was cured of his blindness after his vision on the road to Damascus. Two churches were also built in this area: The Church of al-Maqsala'at and the Church of Mariam (Mary), which was replaced by the Maryamiyyah Church which still stands today.
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  8. page Samarkand edited The Ancient City of Samarkand and its History Introduction (Abstract) Throughout the ... ru…

    The Ancient City of Samarkand and its History
    Introduction (Abstract)
    Throughout the
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    rulers numerous times,times; it remained
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    interaction, and itshad a consistently stable
    Samarkand's Social Structure
    The city of Samarkand was known for its extensive and elaborate arts, and for its creativity. Of course over time that may have changed; but from the years 600 - 1450 C.E., Samarkand flourished in culture and social aspects. Also, because it was located along the Silk Routes, many of the traded items influenced life in Samarkand.
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